I made a figure to help me distinguish the difference between vomerine teeth and other teeth on the roof of the mouth in darters. I hope this is helpful to others as well.
Preview of pterygoid and vomerine teeth in Etheostoma kennicotti, the stripetail darter. A: ventral, anterior view. Window draws attention to the location of teeth along the pterygoid process and vomer (on the roof of the mouth). B: view of palatine teeth, from ventral view. Teeth on left pterygoid process marked by the left arrow; vomerine teeth marked by the right arrow. Scales bar represents 500 µm. C: right lateral side, anterior. Window draws attention to location of palatine teeth. Scale bar represents 2 mm. D: palatine teeth at increased magnification. Teeth on left pterygoid process marked by the posterior arrow; vomerine teeth marked by the anterior arrow. Scale bar represents 500 µm. Big thanks to D Navon, D Jockel, B Richardson, RC Albertson, and S Huskey for comments and feedback.